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NSW Syllabuses

Science K–10 - Stage 5 Living World


A student:

  • SC5-14LW

    analyses interactions between components and processes within biological systems

  • SC5-15LW

    explains how biological understanding has advanced through scientific discoveries, technological developments and the needs of society

Related Life Skills outcomes: SCLS-17LW, SCLS-18LW, SCLS-19LW, SCLS-20LW, SCLS-21LW


  • LW1 Multicellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes in their environment. (ACSSU175)
  • Students:
  • a. describe some examples of how multicellular organisms respond to changes in their environment
  • b. describe how the coordinated function of internal systems in multicellular organisms provides cells with requirements for life, including gases, nutrients and water, and removes cell wastes
  • c. outline some responses of the human body to infectious and non-infectious diseases
  • d. describe the role of, and interaction between, the coordination systems in maintaining humans as functioning organisms
  • e. discuss, using examples, how the values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research, eg the occurrence of diseases affecting animals and plants, an epidemic or pandemic disease in humans or lifestyle related non-infectious diseases in humans PSCCCTEU
  • LW2 Conserving and maintaining the quality and sustainability of the environment requires scientific understanding of interactions within, the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through ecosystems.
  • Students:
  • a. recall that ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment (ACSSU176)
  • b. outline using examples how matter is cycled through ecosystems such as nitrogen (ACSSU176)
  • c. describe how energy flows through ecosystems, including input and output through food webs (ACSSU176)
  • d. analyse how changes in some biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem affect populations and/or communities CCT
  • e. assess ways that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' cultural practices and knowledge of the environment contribute to the conservation and management of sustainable ecosystems AHCSE
  • f. evaluate some examples in ecosystems, of strategies used to balance conserving, protecting and maintaining the quality and sustainability of the environment with human activities and needs CCTPSCEUSE
  • LW3 Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology, and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries. (ACSHE158, ACSHE192)
  • Students:
  • a. relate the organs involved in human reproductive systems to their function
  • b. identify that during reproduction the transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes (ACSSU184)
  • c. identify that genetic information is transferred as genes in the DNA of chromosomes
  • d. outline how the Watson-Crick model of DNA explains:
  • the exact replication of DNA
  • changes in genes (mutation)
  • e. describe, using examples, how developments in technology have advanced biological understanding, eg vaccines, biotechnology, stem-cell research and in-vitro fertilisation CCTEUPSC
  • f. discuss some advantages and disadvantages of the use and applications of biotechnology, including social and ethical considerations PSCEU
  • LW4 The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence. (ACSSU185)
  • Students:
  • a. describe scientific evidence that present-day organisms have evolved from organisms in the past
  • b. relate the fossil record to the age of the Earth and the time over which life has been evolving
  • c. explain, using examples, how natural selection relates to changes in a population, eg in the development of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics and insects to pesticides L
  • d. outline the roles of genes and environmental factors in the survival of organisms in a population CCT
  • Additional content

    Additional content is not prerequisite knowledge for following stages, but may be used to broaden and deepen students' skills, knowledge and understanding in Stage 5.
  • Students:
  • debate why any investigation relating to biological research and involving or affecting animals, must be humane, justified and ethical CCTEU
  • describe the range of functions carried out by some endocrine (hormonal) glands in humans L
  • investigate how models can be used to predict the changes in populations due to environmental changes, eg the impact of fire or flooding, introduction of a disease or predator CCTL
  • discuss the strengths and limitations of using models to make predictions about changes in biological systems CCT
  • describe examples of advances in science and/or emerging science and technologies, in areas that involve biological science such as dentistry, environmental science, biomedical engineering, physiology, pharmaceuticals or nanotechnology CCTLWE
  • assess the role of the development of fast computers in the analysis of DNA sequences ICT
  • research how information technology is applied in bioinformatics ICT