NSW Syllabuses

# Mathematics K–10 - Stage 1 - Measurement and Geometry Time

## Time 1

### Outcomes

#### A student:

• MA1-1WM

describes mathematical situations and methods using everyday and some mathematical language, actions, materials, diagrams and symbols

• MA1-2WM

uses objects, diagrams and technology to explore mathematical problems

• MA1-13MG

describes, compares and orders durations of events, and reads half- and quarter-hour time

• Students:
• Name and order months and seasons (ACMMG040)
• name and order the months of the year
• recall the number of days that there are in each month
• name and order the seasons, and name the months for each season
• describe the environmental characteristics of each season, eg 'Winter is cool and some trees lose their leaves' (Communicating)
• recognise that in some cultures seasonal changes mark the passing of time, eg the flowering of plants and the migration patterns of animals are used by many peoples, including Aboriginal people (Reasoning)
• recognise that in countries in the northern hemisphere, the season is the opposite to that being experienced in Australia at that time (Reasoning)
• Use a calendar to identify the date and determine the number of days in each month (ACMMG041)
• identify a day and date using a conventional calendar
• identify personally or culturally significant days (Communicating)
• identify the different uses of calendars in various communities (Communicating)
• Tell time to the half-hour (ACMMG020)
• read analog and digital clocks to the half-hour using the terms 'o'clock' and 'half past'
• describe the position of the hands on a clock for the half-hour
• explain why the hour hand on a clock is halfway between the two hour-markers when the minute hand shows the half-hour (Communicating, Reasoning)
• describe everyday events with particular hour and half-hour times, eg 'We start school at 9 o'clock' (Communicating)
• record hour and half-hour time on analog and digital clocks

### Background Information

'Timing' and 'telling time' are two different notions. The first relates to the duration of time and the second is 'dial reading'. Both, however, assist students in understanding the passage of time and its measurement.

#### Duration

It is important in Stage 1 that students develop a sense of one hour, one minute and one second through practical experiences, rather than simply recalling that there are 60 minutes in an hour.

#### Telling Time

In Stage 1, 'telling time' focuses on reading the half-hour on both analog and digital clocks. An important understanding is that when the minute hand shows the half-hour, the hour hand is always halfway between two hour-markers. Students need to be aware that there is always more than one way of expressing a particular time, eg

Note: When writing digital time, two dots should separate hours and minutes, eg 9:30.

In Aboriginal communities, calendars may vary in accordance with local seasonal and environmental changes, such as the flowering of plants and the migration patterns of animals, or according to significant events in the local community. Consult with local communities regarding specific local perspectives.

### Language

Students should be able to communicate using the following language: calendar, days, date, month, year, seasons, time, clock, analog, digital, hour hand, minute hand, o'clock, half past.

The terms 'hour hand' and 'minute hand', rather than 'big hand' and 'little hand', should be used to promote understanding of their respective functions.

### National Numeracy Learning Progression links to this Mathematics outcome

When working towards the outcome MA1‑13MG the sub-elements (and levels) of Interpreting fractions (InF1) and Measuring time (MeT2) describe observable behaviours that can aid teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

The progression sub-elements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Numeracy Learning Progression.

## Time 2

### Outcomes

#### A student:

• MA1-1WM

describes mathematical situations and methods using everyday and some mathematical language, actions, materials, diagrams and symbols

• MA1-2WM

uses objects, diagrams and technology to explore mathematical problems

• MA1-3WM

supports conclusions by explaining or demonstrating how answers were obtained

• MA1-13MG

describes, compares and orders durations of events, and reads half- and quarter-hour time

• Students:
• Describe duration using months, weeks, days and hours (ACMMG021)
• use a calendar to calculate the number of months, weeks or days until an upcoming event
• estimate and measure the duration of an event using a repeated informal unit, eg the number of times you can clap your hands while the teacher writes your name
• solve simple everyday problems about time and duration (Problem Solving)
• recognise that some cultures use informal units of time, eg the use of tidal change in Aboriginal communities (Reasoning)
• compare and order the duration of events measured using a repeated informal unit, eg 'It takes me ten claps to write my name but only two claps to say my name'
• use the terms 'hour', 'minute' and 'second'
• experience and recognise activities that have a duration of one hour, half an hour or a quarter of an hour, one minute, and a few seconds
• indicate when it is thought that an activity has continued for one hour, one minute or one second (Reasoning)
• compare and discuss the relationship between time units, eg an hour is a longer time than a minute (Communicating, Reasoning)
• make predictions about the duration of time remaining until a particular school activity starts or finishes, eg the length of time until lunch begins (Reasoning)
• Tell time to the quarter-hour using the language of 'past' and 'to' (ACMMG039)
• read analog and digital clocks to the quarter-hour using the terms 'past' and 'to', eg 'It is a quarter past three', 'It is a quarter to four'
• describe the position of the hands on a clock for quarter past and quarter to
• describe the hands on a clock as turning in a 'clockwise' direction (Communicating)
• associate the numerals 3, 6 and 9 with 15, 30 and 45 minutes and with the terms 'quarter past', 'half past' and 'quarter to', respectively (Communicating)
• identify which hour has just passed when the hour hand is not pointing to a numeral
• record quarter-past and quarter-to time on analog and digital clocks

### Background Information

Refer to background information in Time 1.

### Language

Students should be able to communicate using the following language: calendar, week, days, date, month, time, clock, analog, digital, hour hand, minute hand, clockwise, numeral, hour, minute, second, o'clock, half past, quarter past, quarter to.

Refer also to language in Time 1.

### National Numeracy Learning Progression links to this Mathematics outcome

When working towards the outcome MA1‑13MG the sub-elements (and levels) of Interpreting fractions (InF1) and Measuring time (MeT2-MeT3) describe observable behaviours that can aid teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

The progression sub-elements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Numeracy Learning Progression.