NSW Syllabuses

# Mathematics K–10 - Stage 1 - Measurement and Geometry Area

## Area 1

### Outcomes

#### A student:

• MA1-1WM

describes mathematical situations and methods using everyday and some mathematical language, actions, materials, diagrams and symbols

• MA1-10MG

measures, records, compares and estimates areas using uniform informal units

• compare, indirectly, the areas of two surfaces that cannot be moved or superimposed, eg by cutting paper to cover one surface and superimposing the paper over the second surface
• predict the larger of the areas of two surfaces of the same general shape and compare these areas by cutting and covering
• use uniform informal units to measure area by covering the surface in rows or columns without gaps or overlaps
• select and use appropriate uniform informal units to measure area (Reasoning)
• explain the relationship between the size of a unit and the number of units needed to measure an area, eg 'I need more tiles than workbooks to measure the area of my desktop' (Communicating, Reasoning)
• describe why the area remains constant when units are rearranged (Communicating, Reasoning)
• describe any parts of units left over when counting uniform informal units to measure area (Communicating)
• use computer software to create a shape and use a simple graphic as a uniform informal unit to measure its area (Communicating)
• record areas by referring to the number and type of uniform informal unit used, eg 'The area of this surface is 20 tiles'
• estimate areas by referring to the number and type of uniform informal unit used and check by measuring
• discuss strategies used to estimate area, eg visualising the repeated unit (Communicating, Problem Solving)

### Background Information

Area relates to the measurement of two-dimensional space in the same way that volume and capacity relate to the measurement of three-dimensional space.

The attribute of area is the amount of surface (either flat or curved) and can be measured in square units, eg square centimetres (cm2), square metres (m2).

In Stage 1, measuring the areas of objects using informal units enables students to develop some key understandings of measurement. These include repeatedly placing units so that there are no gaps or overlaps and understanding that the units must be equal in size. Covering surfaces with a range of informal units should assist students in understanding that some units tessellate and are therefore more suitable for measuring area.

When students understand why tessellating units are important, they should be encouraged to make, draw and describe the spatial structure (grid). Students should develop procedures for counting tile or grid units so that no units are missed or counted twice.

Students should also be encouraged to identify and use efficient strategies for counting, eg using repeated addition, rhythmic counting or skip counting.

It is important that students have had some measurement experiences before being asked to estimate areas, and that a variety of estimation strategies is taught.

Students may have a prior understanding of area based upon the concept of boundaries and/or landmarks, such as those used by Aboriginal communities.

### Language

Students should be able to communicate using the following language: area, surface, measure, row, column, gap, overlap, parts of (units), estimate.

### National Numeracy Learning Progression links to this Mathematics outcome

When working towards the outcome MA1‑10MG the sub-elements (and levels) of Understanding units of measurement (UuM3-UuM5) describe observable behaviours that can aid teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

The progression sub-elements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Numeracy Learning Progression.

## Area 2

### Outcomes

#### A student:

• MA1-1WM

describes mathematical situations and methods using everyday and some mathematical language, actions, materials, diagrams and symbols

• MA1-3WM

supports conclusions by explaining or demonstrating how answers were obtained

• MA1-10MG

measures, records, compares and estimates areas using uniform informal units

• Students:
• Compare and order several shapes and objects based on area using appropriate uniform informal units (ACMMG037)
• draw the spatial structure (grid) of repeated units covering a surface
• explain the structure of the unit tessellation in terms of rows and columns (Communicating)
• compare and order the areas of two or more surfaces that cannot be moved, or superimposed, by measuring in uniform informal units
• predict the larger of two or more areas and check by measuring (Reasoning)
• record comparisons of area informally using drawings, numerals and words, and by referring to the uniform informal unit used

### Background Information

Refer to background information in Area 1.

### Language

Students should be able to communicate using the following language: area, surface, measure, grid, row, column.

### National Numeracy Learning Progression links to this Mathematics outcome

When working towards the outcome MA1‑10MG the sub-elements (and levels) of Understanding units of measurement (UuM5-UuM6) describe observable behaviours that can aid teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.

The progression sub-elements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Numeracy Learning Progression.