skip to main content
NSW Syllabuses

Geography K–10 - Stage 4 Landscapes and Landforms – Stage 4


A student:

  • GE4-1

    locates and describes the diverse features and characteristics of a range of places and environments

  • GE4-2

    describes processes and influences that form and transform places and environments

  • GE4-4

    examines perspectives of people and organisations on a range of geographical issues

  • GE4-5

    discusses management of places and environments for their sustainability

  • GE4-7

    acquires and processes geographical information by selecting and using geographical tools for inquiry

  • GE4-8

    communicates geographical information using a variety of strategies

Related Life Skills outcomes: GELS-1, GELS-2, GELS-4, GELS-5, GELS-7, GELS-8

  • Key inquiry questions

  • Why is there a diversity of landscapes and landforms on Earth? 
  • What environmental and human processes form and transform landscapes and landforms?
  • Why do people value landscapes and landforms?
  • To what extent are landscapes and landforms sustainably managed and protected?
  • Content focus

  • Students explore landscapes and landforms using examples from Australia and throughout the world. They explain processes that create landscapes and shape individual landforms and they describe the value of landscapes and landforms to different people. Students examine issues of landscape degradation and ways to manage and protect landscapes and landforms. Students also investigate a natural hazard associated with landscapes and people’s responses to that hazard. 
  • Content

  • Landscapes and landforms
  • Students:
  • identification of a variety of landscapes and landforms MVR
  • explanation of geomorphic processes that create landforms eg weathering, erosion, deposition, tectonic activity VR L
  • examination of ONE landscape and its distinctive landforms F ICT
  • Value of landscapes and landforms
  • Students:
  • investigate the aesthetic, cultural, spiritual and economic value of landscapes and landforms for people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, for example:  (ACHGK049) AHC
  • explanation of the aesthetic value of landscapes and landforms to culture and identity AHCAIU
  • description of the cultural and spiritual value of landscapes or landforms in different places VR AHCADD
  • identification of how a landscape can have economic value for different people WE
  • Changing landscapes
  • Students:
  • investigate the human causes and effects of land degradation, for example: (ACHGK051)
  • identification of the ways people utilise and change landscapes VR ICT
  • description of the impact of a range of human activities on landscapes GSVR LN
  • examination of ONE type of landscape degradation including its spatial distribution, causes and impact MF SEICT
  • Landscape management and protection
  • Students:
  • investigate ways people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, manage and protect landscapes, for example:  (ACHGK052) AHCSE
  • description of the nature and extent of landscape protection across a range of scales eg locally protected places, national parks, world heritage listing M SEL
  • examination of management and protection strategies for ONE landscape F SE
  • assessment of the contribution of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples’ knowledge to the use and management of an Australian landscape or landform AHCSECCT
  • Geomorphic hazard
  • Students:
  • investigate ONE contemporary geomorphic hazard including causes, impacts and responses, for example:  (ACHGK053)
  • description of the spatial distribution of the disaster M AICTL
  • explanation of geomorphic processes causing the disaster and its impacts VR L
  • examination of the responses of individuals, groups and government to the impact of the disaster EUICT
  • discussion of management strategies to reduce the future impact of similar natural hazard events including the role of technology in monitoring and predicting geomorphic hazards CCTICTPSC