skip to main content
NSW Syllabuses

Stage statements

Stage statements are summaries of the knowledge, understanding, skills, values and attitudes that have been developed by students as a result of achieving the outcomes for each stage of learning.

Prior-to-school learning

Students bring to school a range of knowledge, understanding and skills developed in home and prior-to-school settings. The movement into Early Stage 1 should be seen as a continuum of learning and planned for appropriately.

The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia describes a range of opportunities for students to learn and develop a foundation for future success in learning.

The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia has five learning outcomes that reflect contemporary theories and research evidence about children's learning. The outcomes are used to guide planning and to assist all children to make progress.

The outcomes are:

  1. Children have a strong sense of identity.
  2. Children are connected with and contribute to their world.
  3. Children have a strong sense of wellbeing.
  4. Children are confident and involved learners.
  5. Children are effective communicators.

In addition, teachers need to acknowledge the learning that children bring to school, and plan appropriate learning experiences that make connections with existing language and literacy development, including language used at home.

Early Stage 1

By the end of Early Stage 1 students respond to a range of spoken, written and multimodal texts from familiar contexts. They demonstrate active listening behaviours to follow simple instructions and ask relevant questions. Students mix and communicate informally with peers, teachers and known adults in informal and structured classroom settings. They communicate clearly and purposefully when engaging in pair, group and class discussions. Students demonstrate an emerging awareness of how people use spoken language for different purposes. They deliver short presentations using familiar and learned vocabulary. Students explore the way familiar spoken texts are constructed and the features of these texts.

Students develop reading, viewing and comprehension skills and strategies using context, grammar, word usage and phonics to make meaning from short, predictable printed texts on familiar topics. They interpret and provide relevant explanations of characters and main events in imaginative texts, and key ideas and visual features in short informative texts, making connections to personal experience. Students recognise, discuss and respond to the different kinds and purposes of various written, visual and digital texts from a variety of cultures. They read with some fluency and accuracy, drawing support from concepts of print and their developing sound and letter knowledge. Students explore and identify some features of texts, including the use of rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words in written and spoken texts.

Students engage in writing with an increasing awareness of the nature, purpose and conventions of written language. They create simple texts and recreate familiar imaginative texts by drawing on personal experience and through performance, drawing and images. Students retell events and experiences for known audiences that demonstrate an awareness of the text structure, basic grammar and punctuation needed. Students begin to apply simple editing techniques to their written work. They know and use letters and sounds of the alphabet to attempt to spell known words. Students write most lower and upper case letters appropriately, using the NSW Foundation Style as appropriate. They explore the use of digital technologies to construct a variety of multimodal texts. Students become aware of how to reflect on and assess their own and others' learning.

Stage 1

By the end of Stage 1 students communicate with a wide range of audiences on familiar and introduced topics to achieve a variety of purposes. They interact effectively, adopting new communication skills and select vocabulary to enhance meaning in order to give confident presentations. Students attend to instructions, share ideas and engage effectively in group and class discussions. They recognise that spoken language has a range of purposes and audiences and use this knowledge when attempting to communicate effectively with others. They investigate the different types and organisational patterns of common spoken texts and recognise features within them. Students create imaginative, informative and persuasive spoken texts drawing on their own experiences, their imagination, and ideas they have learned.

Students read and view imaginative, informative and persuasive texts. They use an increasing variety of skills and strategies, including knowledge of text structure, context, grammar, punctuation, word usage and phonics, to make connections between texts and between their own experiences and information in texts. Students read with developing fluency and intonation short texts with some unfamiliar vocabulary, simple sentences and images. Students read, interpret and discuss texts from a variety of cultures, including visual and multimodal texts, using a range of skills and strategies. They locate literal information in written texts and refer to features of language and images to make inferences about characters’ actions and motivations. Students explore and identify ways in which texts differ according to purpose, audience and subject.

Students create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts on familiar topics for known readers by planning, proofreading and editing their own writing. They write using basic grammatical features and conventions of punctuation, showing an awareness of different purposes, audiences and subject matter. Students use knowledge of letter–sound correspondence, sight words and regular spelling patterns to accurately spell known words and an increasing number of irregularly spelt words. They write consistently and clearly using NSW Foundation Style as appropriate and use digital technologies to produce texts, recognising simple conventions, language and functions. Students reflect on and assess their own and others’ learning.

Stage 2

By the end of Stage 2 students communicate expressively and clearly with growing proficiency about ideas and information in classroom, school and social situations for a range of purposes. They explore a variety of roles when interacting in pairs and groups, attending to different views and responding appropriately. Students use various listening behaviours to gather general ideas and key points from conversations, reports or spoken presentations. They identify the effect of purpose, audience and culture on spoken texts and shape and present ideas accordingly. Students identify common organisational patterns and language features of predictable spoken texts.

Students independently read, view and respond to familiar and challenging texts and justify interpretations of ideas, information and events using a range of skills and strategies. They integrate a range of skills and strategies efficiently when reading, interpreting, analysing and evaluating texts and visual images. Students identify literal information in texts and make inferences, integrating and linking ideas and asking questions to clarify understandings. They recognise the representation of characters, settings and events in imaginative texts and start to evaluate point of view. They explain some ways in which authors and illustrators engage the interests of audiences and achieve a range of purposes. Students explore the structural and grammatical features and purposes for a range of written, visual and multimodal texts.

Students create well-structured imaginative, informative and persuasive texts in terms of topic, purpose, audience and language by drafting, proofreading and editing for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They use simple and complex sentences, paragraphing, punctuation and grammatical features characteristic of the various texts to support meaning. Students spell familiar and unfamiliar words using knowledge of letter–sound correspondence, regular and irregular spelling patterns, spelling rules and a range of other strategies. They use increasing fluency when writing, applying NSW Foundation Style as appropriate, and develop digital publishing skills. Students explain and reflect on how they structure their writing to achieve intended purposes.

Stage 3

By the end of Stage 3 students communicate effectively, using considered language to entertain, inform and persuade audiences for an increasing range of purposes. They work productively and independently in pairs or groups to deliver effective presentations using various skills and strategies. Students collaborate with others to share and evaluate ideas and opinions and to develop different points of view. They express well-developed and well-organised ideas about literary texts and respond constructively to different opinions. They demonstrate active listening behaviours in order to gather specific information and ideas, recognising and exploring how spoken and written language differ and how spoken language varies according to context. Students evaluate characteristic language features and organisational patterns of challenging spoken texts.

Students independently read and view an extensive range of complex texts and visual images using a comprehensive range of skills and strategies. They respond to themes and issues within texts, recognise point of view and justify interpretations by referring to their own knowledge, values and experiences. They identify, critically analyse and respond to techniques, literary devices and language features used by writers to influence readers. Students compare and accurately summarise information on a particular topic from different texts and make well-supported generalisations about the topic. Students identify text structure of a range of complex texts and explore how grammatical features work to influence an audience's understanding of written, visual, media and multimodal texts.

Students create well-structured and well-presented written and multimodal imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for a wide range of purposes and audiences. They deal with complex topics, issues and language features. Students select information and ideas from personal, literary and researched resources, and adapt imaginative ideas and situations from literature. They make considered choices in written texts from an expanding vocabulary and from growing knowledge of grammatical patterns, complex sentence structures, cohesive links and literary devices. Students write well-structured sentences and paragraphs on particular aspects of the topic, clarifying and explaining how choices of language and literary features were designed to influence the meaning communicated in their texts. They spell most common words accurately and use a variety of strategies to spell less common words. They develop a fluent writing style and employ digital technology to present written texts effectively in a variety of ways for different purposes and audiences. Students evaluate the effectiveness of their writing by drafting, proofreading, editing, reviewing and publishing, focusing on grammatical features and the conventions of writing.

Stage 4

By the end of Stage 4 students respond to a variety of texts critically, imaginatively and interpretively and compose accurate, clear and coherent texts. They use English in personal, social and learning contexts with increasing control and understanding of the form and features of language and structures of texts, and with increasing awareness of purpose, audience and context. Students make connections between texts, they recognise the main ideas and points of view, and the ways in which texts seek to position responders. They make decisions about whether content and language are appropriate to purpose, audience and context.

In speaking, writing and representing, students shape meaning through the thoughtful selection and ordering of appropriate content and by drawing on a widening repertoire of language choices. They can express a personal point of view, give words and images to their imaginings and compose logical argument. They experiment with form and language in different modes and technologies to produce various types of texts for specific purposes. As appropriate, they plan, draft and edit to produce polished texts.

Students apply their knowledge of textual features and conventions to their texts. They constructively analyse and evaluate their own and others' compositions and they articulate their response to texts and to the process and experience of composing. Students reflect on their learning, becoming aware of how they learn and identifying what they have learned, effective ways to learn and what they need to learn next.

Students who have achieved Stage 4 respond to literary and other texts for enjoyment and to expand their perspectives on their own lives. They engage with images of their real and imagined worlds and explore the relationship between them. They explore texts critically, evaluating content, differentiating between fact and opinion, challenging points of view and identifying, considering and appreciating cultural expressions. They respond to imagery and symbolism in verbal and visual forms. They engage with print, film and digital texts with an informed awareness of the language forms and features and structures of those texts. Students develop personal preferences in what they hear, read and view, and are able to articulate their preference in personal and critical responses.

Stage 5

By the end of Stage 5 students respond to and compose a comprehensive range of imaginative, factual and critical texts using different modes and technologies. They enjoy, reflect on, critically assess and articulate processes of response and composition. They respond to and compose a wide range of simple and complex texts for pleasure, critical analysis and information-gathering, varying their approach according to a text's purpose, audience and context. They focus on details of texts to analyse meaning, perspective, cultural assumptions, ideologies and language.

Students use varying technologies to compose texts. They apply their knowledge of the elements that shape meaning in texts. They use a range of strategies to shape their texts to address purpose and audience in different contexts. They conform to or challenge an audience's preconceptions and expectations about content and form, and they evaluate the effectiveness of each approach. Students display a developing personal style in their personal, imaginative, critical and analytical compositions. They work through the composing process, including planning, researching, drafting, conferencing, editing and publishing. Students reflect on their composing process and how it has affected the final version of their text.

Students respond to texts from different cultures that offer a range of perspectives. In considering possible meanings, they develop sustained interpretations supported by evidence and think creatively beyond the text. They infer and interpret, and investigate the similarities and differences between and among texts. Through close and wide engagement with texts students extend their imaginations and engage with images of their real and imagined worlds. They respond imaginatively and critically to verbal and visual imagery and iconography, considering how these and other features reflect the cultural context of the text. By critically evaluating texts, students identify strengths and weaknesses and are able to articulate coherent responses. From their responses to individual texts they generalise about views of the world and strategies that are used to communicate and sustain such views.

Students reflect on their own and others' learning, assessing learning strategies and purposes to adapt their knowledge, understanding and skills to new contexts.