Fractions and Decimals 1
Outcomes
A student:

 MA11WM
describes mathematical situations and methods using everyday and some mathematical language, actions, materials, diagrams and symbols

 MA17NA
represents and models halves, quarters and eighths
Content
 Students:
 Recognise and describe onehalf as one of two equal parts of a whole (ACMNA016)

use concrete materials to model half of a whole object, eg
 describe two equal parts of a whole object, eg 'I folded my paper into two equal parts and now I have halves' (Communicating)
 recognise that halves refer to two equal parts of a whole
 describe parts of a whole object as 'about a half', 'more than a half' or 'less than a half'

record two equal parts of whole objects and shapes, and the relationship of the parts to the whole, using pictures and the fraction notation for half \(\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\), eg

use concrete materials to model half of a collection, eg
 describe two equal parts of a collection, eg 'I have halves because the two parts have the same number of seedlings' (Communicating)

record two equal parts of a collection, and the relationship of the parts to the whole, using pictures and fraction notation for half \(\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\), eg
Background Information
In Stage 1, fractions are used in two different ways: to describe equal parts of a whole, and to describe equal parts of a collection of objects. Fractions refer to the relationship of the equal parts to the whole unit. When using collections to model fractions, it is important that students appreciate the collection as being a 'whole' and the resulting groups as being 'parts of a whole'. It should be noted that the size of the resulting fraction will depend on the size of the original whole or collection of objects.
It is not necessary for students to distinguish between the roles of the numerator and the denominator in Stage 1. They may use the symbol \(\frac{1}{2} \) as an entity to mean 'onehalf' or 'a half', and similarly use \(\frac{1}{4} \) to mean 'onequarter' or 'a quarter'.
Three models of fractions
Continuous model, linear – uses onedirectional cuts or folds that compare fractional parts based on length; this model should be introduced first. Cuts or folds may be either vertical or horizontal.
Continuous model, area – uses multidirectional cuts or folds to compare fractional parts to the whole. This model should be introduced once students have an understanding of the concept of area in Stage 2.
Discrete model – uses separate items in collections to represent parts of the whole group.
Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following language: whole, part, equal parts, half, halves, about a half, more than a half, less than a half.
Some students may hear 'whole' in the phrase 'part of a whole' and confuse it with the term 'hole'.
National Numeracy Learning Progression links to this Mathematics outcome
When working towards the outcome MA1‑7NA the subelements (and levels) of Multiplicative strategies (MuS1MuS2, MuS5) and Interpreting fractions (InF1) describe observable behaviours that can aid teachers in making evidencebased decisions about student development and future learning.
The progression subelements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Numeracy Learning Progression.
Fractions and Decimals 2
Outcomes
A student:

 MA11WM
describes mathematical situations and methods using everyday and some mathematical language, actions, materials, diagrams and symbols

 MA13WM
supports conclusions by explaining or demonstrating how answers were obtained

 MA17NA
represents and models halves, quarters and eighths
Content
 Students:
 Recognise and interpret common uses of halves, quarters and eighths of shapes and collections (ACMNA033)

use concrete materials to model a half, a quarter or an eighth of a whole object, eg divide a piece of ribbon into quarters
 create quarters by halving onehalf, eg 'I halved my paper then halved it again and now I have quarters' (Communicating, Problem Solving)
 describe the equal parts of a whole object, eg 'I folded my paper into eight equal parts and now I have eighths' (Communicating)
 discuss why \(\frac{1}{8}\) is less than \(\frac{1}{4}\), eg if a cake is shared among eight people, the slices are smaller than if the cake is shared among four people (Communicating, Reasoning)
 recognise that fractions refer to equal parts of a whole, eg all four quarters of an object are the same size
 visualise fractions that are equal parts of a whole, eg 'Imagine where you would cut the rectangle before cutting it' (Problem Solving)
 recognise when objects and shapes have been shared into halves, quarters or eighths

record equal parts of whole objects and shapes, and the relationship of the parts to the whole, using pictures and the fraction notation for half \(\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\), quarter \(\left(\frac{1}{4}\right)\) and eighth \(\left(\frac{1}{8}\right)\), eg

use concrete materials to model a half, a quarter or an eighth of a collection, eg
 describe equal parts of a collection of objects, eg 'I have quarters because the four parts have the same number of counters' (Communicating)
 recognise when a collection has been shared into halves, quarters or eighths
 record equal parts of a collection, and the relationship of the parts to the whole, using pictures and the fraction notation for half \(\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\), quarter \(\left(\frac{1}{4}\right)\) and eighth \(\left(\frac{1}{8}\right)\)
 use fraction language in a variety of everyday contexts, eg the halfhour, onequarter of the class
Background Information
Refer to background information in Fractions and Decimals 1.
Language
Students should be able to communicate using the following language: whole, part, equal parts, half, quarter, eighth, onehalf, onequarter, oneeighth, halve (verb).
In Stage 1, the term 'threequarters' may be used to name the remaining parts after onequarter has been identified.
National Numeracy Learning Progression links to this Mathematics outcome
When working towards the outcome MA1‑7NA the subelements (and levels) of Multiplicative strategies (MuS1MuS3, MuS5) and Interpreting fractions (InF1InF4) describe observable behaviours that can aid teachers in making evidencebased decisions about student development and future learning.
The progression subelements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Numeracy Learning Progression.