draws on an increasing range of skills and strategies to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on less familiar topics in different media and technologies
- Develop and apply contextual knowledge
- understand how readers' self-selection and enjoyment of texts is informed by personal interests
- discuss different texts on a similar topic, identifying similarities and differences between the texts (ACELY1665)
- Understand and apply knowledge of language forms and features
- recognise grammatical patterns to enhance comprehension, eg action verbs, words or groups of words that tell who, what, when, where and how
- recognise a clause as a complete message or thought expressed in words, noun–pronoun agreement, conjunctions
- understand that nouns represent people, places, things and ideas and can be, for example, common, proper, concrete or abstract, and that noun groups/phrases can be expanded using articles and adjectives (ACELA1468)
- understand patterns of repetition and contrast in simple texts (ACELA1448)
- identify the parts of a simple sentence that represent 'What's happening?', 'Who or what is involved?' and the surrounding circumstances (ACELA1451)
- understand how sentence punctuation is used to enhance meaning and fluency
- identify word families and word origins to understand the meaning of unfamiliar words, eg base words, rhyming words and synonyms
- recognise sound–letter matches including common vowel and consonant digraphs and consonant blends (ACELA1458)
- understand the variability of sound–letter matches (ACELA1459)
- recognise most sound–letter matches including silent letters, vowel/consonant digraphs and many less common sound–letter combinations (ACELA1474)
- automatically recognise irregular high-frequency words, eg 'come' and 'are'
- use phonological, graphological, syntactic and semantic cues to decode and make meaning from written texts, eg using an increasing repertoire of high-frequency and sight words, segmenting words into syllables
- manipulate sounds in spoken words including phoneme deletion and substitution (ACELA1457)
- read supportive texts using developing phrasing, fluency, contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge and emerging text processing strategies, for example prediction, monitoring meaning and rereading (ACELY1659)
- self-correct when meaning is interrupted in simple texts, eg pausing, repeating words and phrases, rereading and reading on
- read less predictable texts with phrasing and fluency by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge using text processing strategies, for example monitoring meaning, predicting, rereading and self-correcting (ACELY1669)
- read with fluency and expression, responding to punctuation and attending to volume, pace, intonation and pitch
- use comprehension strategies to build literal and inferred meaning and begin to analyse texts by drawing on growing knowledge of context, language and visual features and print and multimodal text structures (ACELY1660, ACELY1670)
- use background knowledge of a topic to make inferences about the ideas in a text
- predict author intent, series of events and possible endings in an imaginative, informative and persuasive text
- discuss the use of text connectives, eg sequencing ideas, indicating time
- identify the cohesive links between pronouns and people and things
- sequence a summary of events and identify key facts or key arguments in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts
- identify visual representations of characters' actions, reactions, speech and thought processes in narratives, and consider how these images add to or contradict or multiply the meaning of accompanying words (ACELA1469)
- compare opinions about characters, events and settings in and between texts (ACELT1589)
- distinguish between fact and opinion in persuasive texts
ESL scales links to the English syllabus
The level on the ESL scales needed to achieve this English syllabus outcome is Reading and Responding level 3.
An EAL student at this stage of schooling may be assessed at a range of levels on the ESL scales Reading and Responding strand from Beginning level 1 to level 3. Teachers plan a learning pathway for EAL students using the ESL scales outcomes and pointers. Teachers assess EAL students' current level of English on the ESL scales then plan teaching and learning activities to scaffold learning for students working towards the achievement of English syllabus outcomes.
For EAL students to achieve this English syllabus outcome the teaching focus and pathway of learning will be within the Language structures and features and Strategies ESL scales strand organisers. See ESL scales outcomes B1.3, B1.4, B2.3, B2.4, B3.3, B3.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2.7, 2.8, 3.7, 3.8.
National Literacy Learning Progression links to this English outcome
When working towards achieving the outcome EN1-4A the sub-elements (and levels) of Listening (LiS4–LiS6), Speaking (SpK4), Phonological awareness (PhA4–PhA5), Phonic knowledge and word recognition (PkW4–PkW8), Fluency (FIY3–FIY4) and Understanding texts (UnT4–UnT6) describe observable behaviours that can assist teachers in making evidence-based decisions about student development and future learning.
The progression sub-elements and indicators can be viewed by accessing the National Literacy Learning Progression.