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NSW Syllabuses

Modules

Modules and Levels of Challenge

Elective modules may be studied in either the Year 11 or Year 12 course but it is expected that as students progress in English Studies there will be an increasing level of challenge. As students advance into the HSC course they should be presented with increased levels of conceptual and textual difficulty consistent with the progress in their learning.

The electives are able to be selected and then developed by teachers to allow for:

  • their students' needs, interests, abilities, career aspirations and personal circumstances
  • choice of approach
  • choice of texts studied.

Suggested content, sample learning experiences and suggested resources for each elective are provided in a separate support document.

Mandatory Modules

Through the study of the module Achieving through English: English in education, work and community students develop an understanding of, and practical competence in, the use of language that allows access to opportunities in schooling, training and employment. They further develop comprehension strategies and improve skills that enable them to express themselves in English confidently, effectively, appropriately and with grammatical accuracy. 

The skills developed in the module assist students to access and comprehend information, ideas and language in everyday and workplace texts, and to compose appropriate texts in response. Students experience, engage with and critique literary and other texts that expand horizons by showing, through an imaginative use of language, the variety and richness of people’s working, schooling and community lives. Texts may include longer works for example films, novels, biographies, television series and drama texts, as well as extracts and short texts. The module will also broaden their understanding of the nature and importance of education, work and community as represented in a variety of literary texts. 

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

In this common module students deepen their understanding of how texts represent individual and collective human experiences. They examine how texts represent human qualities and emotions associated with, or arising from, these experiences. Students appreciate, explore, interpret, analyse and evaluate the ways language is used to shape these representations in a range of texts in a variety of forms, modes and media.

Students explore how texts may give insight into the anomalies, paradoxes and inconsistencies in human behaviour and motivations, inviting the responder to see the world differently, to challenge assumptions, ignite new ideas or reflect personally. They may also consider the role of storytelling throughout time to express and reflect particular lives and cultures. By responding to a range of texts they further develop skills and confidence using various literary devices, language concepts, modes and media to formulate a considered response to texts.

Students study one prescribed text and a range of short texts that provide rich opportunities to further explore representations of human experiences illuminated in texts. They make increasingly informed judgements about how aspects of these texts, for example context, purpose, structure, stylistic and grammatical features, and form shape meaning. In addition, students select one related text and draw from personal experience to make connections between themselves, the world of the text and their wider world.

By responding and composing throughout the module students further develop a repertoire of skills in comprehending, interpreting and analysing complex texts. They examine how different modes and media use visual, verbal and/or digital language elements. They communicate ideas using figurative language to express universal themes and evaluative language to make informed judgements about texts. Students further develop skills in using metalanguage, correct grammar and syntax to analyse language and express a personal perspective about a text.

* The inclusion of Texts and Human Experiences will require the study of one text from the Prescribed Text List.

Elective Modules (Year 11 or Year 12)

Through the study of the module We are Australians: English citizenship, community and cultural identity students study a range of texts in order to develop awareness of complex aspects of Australian citizenship, community and cultural identity, and to develop language skills appropriate to participating in discussion and decision-making about these matters.

Students develop understanding of, and practical competence in, the use of language relevant to conducting their lives as citizens and members of communities. They develop skills in accessing and comprehending information that will enable them to have increasingly informed views on matters of public interest and in expressing those views. They investigate the way language is used to represent issues and attitudes, and to influence and engage different audiences.

Students have the opportunity to engage with and critique literary texts that present, through an imaginative use of language, the diversity of cultures, peoples, perspectives and voices that contribute to Australian society as well as Australia as a nation, including texts by and about Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people/s. Students broaden their understanding of the relationships between personal identity, individual rights, community responsibilities and a sense of Australia’s place in the world.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Telling us all about it: English and the media students develop a deeper understanding of the ways language is used to report on news and current affairs issues in various media forms, for example television news programs, documentary programs, news bulletins, television infotainment shows, newspapers, current affairs magazines and online news sources. Students also develop an increased awareness of the ways language is used through media forms in the world of advertising, for example in websites, print media, television and product placement, and may further investigate the processes used in marketing.

Students further develop their practical competence in the use of language by extending their skills in writing media texts, for example news reports and feature articles, storyboards, advertising stills and briefs, and have opportunities to develop and express their own views, ideas and values in relation to questions that are under media scrutiny and which are relevant to them.

This module provides students with the opportunity to experience, engage with and critique literary texts that, through an imaginative use of language, raise questions of ethics, censorship and the powerful influence of the media on individual lives and on a national and international scale. Texts may include longer works for example novels, films, television series and plays.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module On the Road: English and the experience of travel, students develop understanding and proficiency in the use of language related to travel, for example the language used by journalists, filmmakers and those in the travel industry.

Students develop knowledge, skills and understanding in comprehending and using appropriate terminology, styles and language forms for analysing, discussing, responding to, and evaluating, issues and topics related to travel. They have opportunities to make judgements about travel advertisements, and locate and comprehend government advice about travel in various overseas countries.

This module provides students with opportunities to extend their skills in the use of subject-specific language in related subject areas across the curriculum, for example in studies of different cultures and societies, global issues and tourism. They may practice their numeracy skills through the examination of costs and the development of travel budgets and associated costs.

Students experience, engage with and critique literary texts that communicate, through an imaginative use of language, the profound effects that travel and journeying can have on human lives, and appreciate how literature can teach us about distant and different places and cultures. Texts may include longer works, for example novels, autobiographies, films, anthologies, television series, websites and plays.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Digital Worlds: English and the Web, students develop understanding and proficiency in the use of language related to web-based communication. They have opportunities to develop knowledge, skills and understanding in comprehending and using appropriate terminology, styles and language forms for analysing, discussing, responding to and evaluating issues and topics related to digital technologies.

Students examine the language, structure, purpose and audiences of digital texts, and develop their skills in using language appropriately and accurately to compose and engage interactively with these texts and consider the potential of new technologies to enhance learning, work and social interaction. Students broaden their understanding of the particular issues, ideas and values confronting society and individuals in the digital age. This module invites students to investigate the opportunities afforded by new technologies for democratic participation and social change, and reflect on their responsibilities as users of digital technology and on the ethical dimensions of the digital world.

Students experience, engage with, critique and create literary and other texts that explore and communicate through an imaginative use of language, through digital media or in other forms, the impact of digital technology on aspects of people’s lives, for example their working lives, their leisure and other day-to-day activities. These texts may include substantial texts, for example novels, autobiographies, biographies, films or plays, as well as texts in digital forms.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Playing the Game: English in sport students develop understanding and proficiency in the use of language related to recreational and professional sport at a local, national and international level.

They have opportunities to develop knowledge, skills and understanding in comprehending and using appropriate terminology, styles and language forms for analysing, discussing, responding to and evaluating issues and topics related to the module, and explore how language is used by a range of people, for example coaches, players, journalists, sports writers, and makers of films and documentaries.

Students consider how language is used in sport to enthuse and motivate, report and analyse team and individual performances, create and sustain interest in sporting stories and issues, and persuade the public and individuals to particular points of view. Through their engagement in the learning opportunities students experience, engage with and critique literary texts that illustrate, through an imaginative use of language, how sport can spark enduring stories about important issues, legendary feats, ambition, success and failure, relationships, controversy, motivation and fitness.

Through the study of a range of texts students have the opportunity to broaden their understanding of the importance of language in the presentation and promotion of sport to the wider community, and how individual and collective commitment to sport as a profession or as recreation is created and sustained. Texts, for example novels, biographies, autobiographies, plays and films, may be used to engage with how they represent particular aspects of sporting stories.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module MiTunes and text: English and the language of song students develop a deeper understanding of how language is used in a range of song lyrics to express emotions, attitudes, ideas and themes related to the human experience. They respond to and compose texts to explore the relationship between the language forms and features used in poems and how these can be used imaginatively and powerfully in song lyrics.

Through the learning experiences offered by teachers students learn to use language imaginatively by composing poems and song lyrics for a range of purposes, for example to recount stories, express personal emotions, to protest, observe, reflect and speculate. Students may compose song reviews, short biographies, autobiographies and videos about lyricists, musicians and composers, and they edit, refine and publish their own lyrics and short texts in a range of media for example digital, print and visual media. Students strengthen their skills in teamwork as they work collaboratively to present their views, discoveries and compositions related to a range of issues related to the world of music, song and poetic forms. They develop a greater understanding and knowledge of the ways language can represent particular views and aspects of the world, through engaging with the study of a range of literary and other texts and explore how language and the use of visual images and music can evoke particular responses from an audience.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Local Heroes: English and community life students develop knowledge and skills to explore and research local issues and the life stories and experiences of community members in the local and broader community. They identify individuals who have made a positive contribution to the community and reflect upon how their own experiences and identity are influenced by selected community members.

Students respond to and compose a range of texts related to community life and engage in a range of rich language experiences that are given significance through being connected to their local community. Through their learning experiences students will be given opportunities to interact purposefully with local organisations, groups and individuals, and establish connections with their local community. These community organisations could include sporting clubs, charities, creative and performing arts groups, business networks or media agencies.

Students consider role models in the community and examine the qualities, behaviours and values these people exhibit to develop an understanding of how communities can be formed and sustained by social and cultural relationships. They respond to and compose a range of short and more sustained texts, as well as critiquing and reflecting on the stories and experiences of these community members.

Students explore their own collective experiences and opinions through a range of creative and personal compositions and develop an appreciation of how texts represent the connection between individuals and their communities, and the effect of such texts on individuals and communities.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Part of a Family: English and family life students develop their understanding of, and proficiency in, the use of language related to the nature of families, the roles of family within communities as well as their representations in text. Students develop knowledge, skills and understanding in comprehending and using appropriate terminology, styles and language forms for analysing, discussing, responding to and assessing issues and topics related to information available to support families, and in comprehending and using terminology and styles of language appropriate to the explanation and discussion of general issues relating to family life.

Through the learning experiences offered students develop knowledge, understanding and skills in the comprehension and composition of a range of informative texts, in both print and digital forms, for example reports, fact sheets, brochures and feature articles, and engage with and critique a range of literary texts that explore the diverse nature of family lives in an imaginative way. They further develop their abilities to analyse how language is used to portray and explore ideas and issues, for example the significance of relationships within and between families and the experiences of the individual within a family network.

Students consider how texts represent a broad range of family structures and relationships in different ways and investigate how the attitudes and individuals are depicted in these texts. They experience, engage with, critique and create literary and other texts that explore and communicate, through an imaginative use of language, in digital media or in other forms, the representations of family and its changing nature over time. These texts may include substantial texts for example novels, autobiographies, biographies, films or plays, as well as multimedia. Students explore individual and collective experiences and opinions and extend their skills in responding to texts by representing their own ideas and experiences in a range of creative and personal ways.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Discovery and Investigation: English and the sciences students develop understanding of, and proficiency in, the use of language related to science and the representation of science in our world. They develop knowledge and skills in comprehending and using terminology and styles of language from a range of contexts appropriate to explanation and discussion of general scientific issues and topics, and in composing a range of texts relevant to the world of science, for example reports, fact sheets and informative feature articles.

Students have the opportunity to develop confident use, and understanding, of a range of texts that explain, instruct, hypothesise, present arguments and solve problems in important areas of everyday life. These may include scientific fields for example medicine and health, agriculture, the environment, forensics and technology. They develop a deeper understanding of relationships between evidence and conclusions, approaches to problem-solving and of ways of presenting logical connections. Through the learning opportunities offered students also develop skills in accessing and comprehending information that enables them to have an increasingly informed view on the sciences and express their ideas orally and in short and extended written forms.

In studying this module students strengthen their skills in comparing and evaluating different views on science-based matters and develop their understanding and language skills relevant to their lives and appropriate to discussion about the sciences. This module also supports the development of communication skills in related Stage 6 studies.

Students experience and engage with a range of literary texts, in both print and digital forms, that explore science, scientific research and discovery, the lives of scientists and the role of science in our daily lives in an imaginative way. They have the opportunity to consider how these texts explore and show the impact and importance of science and of scientific ethics. Students explore how the sciences have contributed to individuals, communities and the nation as a whole. The texts may include longer texts for example novels, nonfiction (eg autobiographies, biographies and speeches), films or plays that dramatise the inspiring endeavour and sacrifice of scientific researchers and innovators throughout history.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied, students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module In the Marketplace: English and the world of business students develop understanding and proficiency in the use of language related to the world of business and commerce as well as its representation in a variety of texts. They develop knowledge, understanding and skills in comprehending and using appropriate terminology, styles and language forms for analysing, discussing, responding to and evaluating general issues and topics related to business, for example advertising and consumerism.

Students have the opportunity to further develop their skills in comprehending and creating informative, analytical and persuasive texts which may include digital and print media, in-house business publications, graphical representations for example charts and tables, websites and workplace policy documents. Students develop confidence in the use and understanding of a range of texts that explain, instruct, hypothesise and present arguments related to business and commerce. They strengthen their understanding of how language and other techniques are used to explore, describe and explain the impact of business and commerce on the working and recreational lives of individuals and communities in Australia and beyond.

Students draw on their experiences of being in the world of work in order to shape their continuing understanding of employment and increase their capacity to develop employability skills. Students have an opportunity to undertake an investigation into advertising and its relationship with business and the subsequent effects on consumers, focusing on an analysis of how language forms and features are manipulated in the promotion of products and ideas. They also consider the ethics surrounding the world of business and advertising. The study may also support the development of communication skills in related Stage 6 studies.

Students experience, engage with, critique and create literary and other texts related to business at the local, national and international level. Through their engagement with, and creation of, texts in both print and digital forms, students explore issues related to the diversity and complexity of business, innovation and achievement. These texts may include substantial texts for example novels, autobiographies, biographies, films or plays.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through study of the module The Big Screen: English in filmmaking students develop a deeper understanding of and proficiency in the use of language and techniques related to films, exploring the ways in which language is used in the production, promotion, reception and criticism of films. Students investigate and research from a variety of sources the complex nature of meaning in visual texts and how these texts are constructed. Students develop their knowledge, skills and understanding by responding to and composing a range of texts in short and extended forms, for example interviews, film reviews, discussions and promotional material about films.

Through the learning experiences offered students have the opportunity to engage with, critique and enjoy a range of films, for example narrative and documentary films, as well as feature length and short films, that employ language and other cinematic techniques imaginatively and directly to convey meaning. Through the study of this module students consider the power of films to engage and influence thoughts, feelings, behaviour and attitudes and the techniques used by filmmakers to achieve this impact with their audiences

Students may also explore the world of films and filmmakers through the study of longer texts, for example biographies or autobiographies, or novels or plays that have been adapted as films, and storyboards or film scripts used in the production of films. They may research and engage with both the perspectives of the actors and production crew and explore the nature of their contributions. Students have opportunities to create their own short films, to write short film scripts and engage in the processes associated with all facets of film production, post-production, marketing, promotion and evaluation.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Who do I think I am?: English and the self students develop an understanding of language and texts typically used to express people's ideas, emotions and beliefs about themselves and their lives. Students respond to and compose texts to learn about how an individual can share experiences and reveal beliefs, aspirations and talents through exploring how language is used in conversations, interviews, biographies, autobiographies and written reflections in a range of media, for example digital, print and visual. Students have opportunities to develop and express a positive view of themselves and their relationships and roles in families and communities through an exploration of language to communicate and represent experience. They respond to and compose texts to explore and analyse language used to build and strengthen relationships and to communicate the achievements and feelings of individuals.

Through the learning experiences offered students have the opportunity to develop their ability and willingness to communicate ideas in private and community forums, and to present themselves positively in a range of contexts including more formal contexts, for example job interviews. They develop awareness of how to present their personal image appropriately and judiciously for a public audience. In doing so, students strengthen their skills in the preparation and presentation of portfolios that showcase their interests, abilities and achievements. Students experience, engage with and critique both short and sustained literary texts that focus on individuals 'telling their stories' imaginatively, in ways that explore issues of identity and self-worth.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module Landscapes of the Mind: English and the creative arts students develop understanding and proficiency in the use of language related to the visual and performing arts. They develop knowledge, understanding and skills in comprehending and using terminology, styles and appropriate language forms for appreciating, promoting, discussing, expressing opinions about, and assessing artistic works and performances of music and/or drama.

Students develop enjoyment of, and confidence in, comprehending, identifying features of, and composing a variety of texts, for example catalogues, programs, promotional material and reviews. This study may occur in the context of contemporary creative arts or the creative arts of the past and may emphasise one particular aspect of interest from the broad range of the visual and performing arts. The study may focus on creative endeavours within Australia, for example the works of or by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people/s, and from other nations or cultures.

In this module students consider the widespread impact of the arts in everyday life and further develop their language skills to equip them to participate in associated understanding, appreciation, discussion and debate. Students engage with, critique and create a range of texts, in a variety of forms, which provide insight into the lives of artists, composers, dancers, actors and directors as well as the powerful, central and influential role of the arts in individual human lives, communities and in society as a whole. Students respond to and compose a variety of critical and creative texts, analysing and assessing ideas and practices related to the visual and performing arts. They reflect on the creative processes which help shape their own artistic works or products as well as those of established figures in the creative arts world.  By responding to and composing a variety of texts in both print and digital forms, students explore issues related to the diversity and complexity of artistic ethics, originality, innovation and achievement. These texts may include substantial texts for example novels, autobiographies, biographies, films or plays.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.

Through the study of the module The Way We Were: English for exploring our past students develop understanding and proficiency in the use of language related to history, with a specific focus on the ways history is presented through texts. They develop knowledge, understanding and skills in comprehending and using terminology and styles and language forms necessary for analysing, discussing, responding to and evaluating general issues and topics relating to 'exploring our past'. They further develop their skills in comprehending, expressing opinions and composing imaginative, analytical, persuasive and informative texts about 'the way we were' in different contexts, for example the local community, the wider community and the workplace.

Work undertaken as part of this module supports enjoyment in, and confident use and understanding of, a range of texts that analyse and explain, challenge and argue and imagine and hypothesise, with regard to exploring our past. This study develops students' understanding of how language and other techniques are used in texts to present and reflect on the past. This study focuses on the ways in which texts present significant events, people and achievements of the past at the local and/or global level. In addition, it may also extend to providing students with the opportunity to consider texts through the notion of the individual, for example a parent, employee, sportsperson, or musician, who is historically important, or through a community perspective, for example a focus on refugees, rural communities or indigenous communities. The study also supports the development of communication skills in related Stage 6 studies.

Students have the opportunity to experience, engage with, critique and create literary and other texts in print, spoken, visual and electronic forms, with a particular focus on recounts and historical narratives. The texts may depict events, individuals, communities and/or the workplace in factual or imaginative ways, and may include extended texts for example novels, biographies, autobiographies, films and plays, as well as other texts for example artworks, poems, picture books, speeches, films, oral stories, obituaries, media texts and workplace and community texts.

Through engaging in the learning opportunities that this module offers, students develop their skills in comprehending and responding to texts, and develop their abilities to use language imaginatively, expressively and purposefully. By creating a range of responses to the texts studied students develop a stronger understanding of the power of language to communicate their ideas effectively and learn about the importance of using vocabulary, register and modality appropriately. Opportunities to plan, proofread and edit their work help students develop greater control of spelling, punctuation, syntax and grammar.