- phonemic awareness
- onset and rime, and syllables
- pronunciation, stress, rhythm, intonation and pitch for emphasis.
- using punctuation as required
- spelling subject-specific vocabulary correctly
- using hyphenation, capitalisation and word breaks correctly
- using subject-specific abbreviations, signs and symbols
- understanding common logographic signs
- distinguishing and using print, cursive and diverse fonts.
Language proficiency and fluency:
- gradually increasing a word bank of vocabulary in English, for example subject-specific vocabulary, lexemes, nominalisations, specialised and technical language, etc
- understanding and using bound morphemes, including conjugations and tense markers, affixes, and plural and possessive forms correctly
- understanding and using conventions of form and structure when composing and responding to texts
- understanding and using metalanguage correctly
- using discourse markers, for example for showing cause and effect
- understanding and using common idioms, colloquialisms and slang
- using synonyms and antonyms as required
- using lexical chains, referential devices and ellipsis to achieve cohesion
- choosing vocabulary appropriate to purpose and audience
- using descriptive, rhetorical and persuasive language
- understanding and using formulaic and fixed expressions, for example phrasal verbs and collocations
- understanding proverbs, clichés, catchphrases, slogans and other figures of speech
- understanding and using correct syntax within clauses and sentences.
- clause and sentence structure
- questioning (including rhetorical questioning)
- parts of speech including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and connectives, interjections, articles, numerals and determiners
- verb forms and tenses
- voice (active, passive)
- clause type (declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative)
- additive, comparative, temporal and consequential conjunctions
- subject–verb agreement
- negative questioning
- direct and indirect speech.
- listening for specific content
- identifying shifts in meaning according to syntax and aspects of style and register
- identifying implied meanings in texts
- predicting meaning and making inferences, for example from context clues
- identifying ambiguous or inappropriate language usage
- using the language of appraisal appropriately to express approval and disapproval, engagement, attitudes and evaluations
- distinguishing between facts and opinions.
- questioning for clarification as needed
- negotiating meaning
- understanding how language is used to persuade
- understanding and experimenting with the style and register of texts (tone, language, audience)
- initiating, sustaining and ending conversations in casual and formal contexts
- identifying the organisation of thoughts, ideas and rhetorical patterns within texts.
Intercultural communication competence:
- identifying stylistic and register variations between familiar, semi-formal and formal contexts
- recognising common cultural references
- recognising irony and how humour is created
- using culturally accepted politeness conventions in listening, speaking and written protocols
- recognising cultural variations in acceptance of novice and expert knowledge
- responding to and using non-verbal cues appropriately, including culturally appropriate gestures and behaviours
- understanding cultural differences in eye contact and personal space
- identifying cultural variations in symbolism, classification and gender behaviours.