NSW Syllabuses

# Chemistry Stage 6 - Year 12 - Module 7: Organic Chemistry Module 7: Organic Chemistry

## Outcomes

#### A student:

• CH11/12-5

analyses and evaluates primary and secondary data and information

• CH11/12-6

solves scientific problems using primary and secondary data, critical thinking skills and scientific processes

• CH11/12-7

communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a specific audience or purpose

• CH12-14

analyses the structure of, and predicts reactions involving, carbon compounds

## Content Focus

Students focus on the principles and applications of chemical synthesis in the field of organic chemistry. Current and future applications of chemistry include techniques to synthesise new substances – including pharmaceuticals, fuels and polymers – to meet the needs of society.

Each class of organic compounds displays characteristic chemical properties and undergoes specific reactions based on the functional groups present. These reactions, including acid/base and oxidation reactions, are used to identify the class of an organic compound. In this module, students investigate the many classes of organic compounds and their characteristic chemical reactions. By considering the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of organic materials, students are provided with opportunities to gain an understanding of the properties of materials – including strength, density and biodegradability – and relate these to proteins, carbohydrates and synthetic polymers.

## Working Scientifically

In this module, students focus on collecting, analysing and processing data and information to identify trends, patterns and relationships to solve problems and communicate scientific understanding of ideas about organic chemistry. Students should be provided with opportunities to engage with all the Working Scientifically skills throughout the course.

## Content

• ### Nomenclature

• Inquiry question: How do we systematically name organic chemical compounds?
• Students:
• investigate the nomenclature of organic chemicals, up to C8, using IUPAC conventions, including simple methyl and ethyl branched chains, including: (ACSCH127)
• alkanes
• alkenes
• alkynes
• alcohols (primary, secondary and tertiary)
• aldehydes and ketones
• carboxylic acids
• amines and amides
• halogenated organic compounds
• explore and distinguish the different types of structural isomers, including saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, including: (ACSCH035)
• chain isomers
• position isomers
• functional group isomers
• ### Hydrocarbons

• Inquiry question: How can hydrocarbons be classified based on their structure and reactivity?
• Students:
• construct models, identify the functional group, and write structural and molecular formulae for homologous series of organic chemical compounds, up to C8 (ACSCH035)
• alkanes
• alkenes
• alkynes
• conduct an investigation to compare the properties of organic chemical compounds within a homologous series, and explain these differences in terms of bonding (ACSCH035)
• analyse the shape of molecules formed between carbon atoms when a single, double or triple bond is formed between them
• explain the properties within and between the homologous series of alkanes with reference to the intermolecular and intramolecular bonding present
• describe the procedures required to safely handle and dispose of organic substances (ACSCH075)
• examine the environmental, economic and sociocultural implications of obtaining and using hydrocarbons from the Earth
• ### Products of Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons

• Inquiry question: What are the products of reactions of hydrocarbons and how do they react?
• Students:
• investigate, write equations and construct models to represent the reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons when added to a range of chemicals, including but not limited to:
• hydrogen $$\left(\text{H}_2\right)$$
• halogens $$\left(\text{X}_2\right)$$
• hydrogen halides $$\left(\text{H}\text{X}\right)$$
• water $$\left(\text{H}_2\text{O}\right)$$ (ACSCH136)
• investigate, write equations and construct models to represent the reactions of saturated hydrocarbons when substituted with halogens
• ### Alcohols

• Inquiry question: How can alcohols be produced and what are their properties?
• Students:
• investigate the structural formulae, properties and functional group including:
• primary
• secondary
• tertiary alcohols
• explain the properties within and between the homologous series of alcohols with reference to the intermolecular and intramolecular bonding present
• conduct a practical investigations to measure and reliably compare the enthalpy of combustion for a range of alcohols
• write equations, state conditions and predict products to represent the reactions of alcohols, including but not limited to: (ACSCH128, ACSCH136)
• combustion
• dehydration
• substitution with $$\text{H}\text{X}$$
• oxidation
• investigate the production of alcohols, including:
• substitution reactions of halogenated organic compounds
• fermentation
• investigate the products of the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols
• compare and contrast fuels from organic sources to biofuels, including ethanol
• ### Reactions of Organic Acids and Bases

• Inquiry question: What are the properties of organic acids and bases?
• Students:
• investigate the structural formulae, properties and functional group including:
• primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
• aldehydes and ketones (ACSCH127)
• amines and amides
• explain the properties within and between the homologous series of carboxylic acids amines and amides with reference to the intermolecular and intramolecular bonding present
• investigate the production, in a school laboratory, of simple esters
• investigate the differences between an organic acid and organic base
• investigate the structure and action of soaps and detergents
• draft and construct flow charts to show reaction pathways for chemical synthesis, including those that involve more than one step
• ### Polymers

• Inquiry question: What are the properties and uses of polymers?
• Students:
• model and compare the structure, properties and uses of addition polymers of ethylene and related monomers, for example:
• polyethylene (PE)
• polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
• polystyrene (PS)
• polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (ACSCH136)
• model and compare the structure, properties and uses of condensation polymers, for example:
• nylon
• polyesters