selects and processes appropriate qualitative and quantitative data and information using a range of appropriate media
analyses and evaluates primary and secondary data and information
solves scientific problems using primary and secondary data, critical thinking skills and scientific processes
explains the structures of DNA and analyses the mechanisms of inheritance and how processes of reproduction ensure continuity of species
Life continues through the processes of reproduction and heredity. Students expand their knowledge of evolution by understanding the cellular processes involved in increasing genetic diversity. They investigate reproduction and inheritance patterns in both plants and animals as well as the role of DNA in polypeptide synthesis and the uses of technologies in the study of inheritance patterns.
Students also learn about contemporary research and the work of geneticists across a variety of industries, including medical applications and agriculture. They explore the effects on society and the environment through the application of genetic research.
In this module, students focus on processing and representing data in appropriate formats to analyse and evaluate trends, relationships and patterns. Students derive and justify valid conclusions about the processes involved in heredity. Students should be provided with opportunities to engage with all Working Scientifically skills throughout the course.
- Inquiry question: How does reproduction ensure the continuity of a species?
- explain the mechanisms of reproduction that ensure the continuity of a species, by analysing sexual and asexual methods of reproduction in a variety of organisms, including but not limited to:
- animals: advantages of external and internal fertilisation
- plants: asexual and sexual reproduction
- fungi: budding, spores
- bacteria: binary fission (ACSBL075)
- protists: binary fission, budding
- analyse the features of fertilisation, implantation and hormonal control of pregnancy and birth in mammals (ACSBL075)
- evaluate the impact of scientific knowledge on the manipulation of plant and animal reproduction in agriculture (ACSBL074)
- Inquiry question: How important is it for genetic material to be replicated exactly?
- model the processes involved in cell replication, including but not limited to:
- mitosis and meiosis (ACSBL075)
- DNA replication using the Watson and Crick DNA model, including nucleotide composition, pairing and bonding (ACSBL076, ACSBL077)
- assess the effect of the cell replication processes on the continuity of species (ACSBL084)
DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis
- Inquiry question: Why is polypeptide synthesis important?
- construct appropriate representations to model and compare the forms in which DNA exists in eukaryotes and prokaryotes (ACSBL076)
- model the process of polypeptide synthesis, including: (ACSBL079)
- transcription and translation
- assessing the importance of mRNA and tRNA in transcription and translation (ACSBL079)
- analysing the function and importance of polypeptide synthesis (ACSBL080)
- assessing how genes and environment affect phenotypic expression (ACSBL081)
- investigate the structure and function of proteins in living things
- Inquiry question: How can the genetic similarities and differences within and between species be compared?
- conduct practical investigations to predict variations in the genotype of offspring by modelling meiosis, including the crossing over of homologous chromosomes, fertilisation and mutations (ACSBL084)
- model the formation of new combinations of genotypes produced during meiosis, including but not limited to:
- interpreting examples of autosomal, sex-linkage, co-dominance, incomplete dominance and multiple alleles (ACSBL085)
- constructing and interpreting information and data from pedigrees and Punnett squares
- collect, record and present data to represent frequencies of characteristics in a population, in order to identify trends, patterns, relationships and limitations in data, for example:
- examining frequency data
- analysing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
Inheritance Patterns in a Population
- Inquiry question: Can population genetic patterns be predicted with any accuracy?
- investigate the use of technologies to determine inheritance patterns in a population using, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL085)
- DNA sequencing and profiling (ACSBL086)
- investigate the use of data analysis from a large-scale collaborative project to identify trends, patterns and relationships, for example: (ACSBL064, ACSBL073)
- the use of population genetics data in conservation management
- population genetics studies used to determine the inheritance of a disease or disorder
- population genetics relating to human evolution